Josef Gruber ranked
among the top Czech economists for thirty years at the turn
of the 19th and 20th century. Jointly with Cyril Horáček he promoted
complex thought in the field of economic politics in contrast to their teachers, Kaizl and Bráf, who rather
concentrated on economic theory. Gruber's great merits also include
the fact that, together with C. Horáček, he gathered, classified and
published the eight-volume work of A. Bráf.
Josef Gruber was born on 3
November 1865 in Luž. He graduated from the grammar school in
Litomyšl and the Law Faculty in Prague. After graduation from
the university in 1890 he worked for fourteen years as a
clerical worker in the Commerce and Trade Chamber in Prague.
Progressively he held more and more important positions, and he dealt with
almost all fields of economic and social politics.
From1896 until the end of his life, almost for thirty years, he was
the head of an important journal, Economic Horizon, for which he
himself wrote many articles. His bright comments on topical
events are in fact a thirty-year chronicle of Czech economic
life and development. During 1900 and 1918 he was chairperson of
the Czech Economic Society and the chief acting secretary of the
Economic Institution of the Czech Academy of Science. Since 1901 he
taught at the Law Faculty and later at the Czech Polytechnics in Prague
as well. He had played a large role in the economic education of Czech
society either by public lectures, or extraordinary and wide-ranging
works that he published. Although he observed the politics of economic
liberalism, he supported a strong state social policy,
which he had the opportunity to show as a minister in the social
caretaker government of Prime Minister Jan Černý (from September
1920 to Sept. 1921) and in the position of the first chairperson of
the Social Institute. He died on 2 May 1925 when travelling by tram.
In his published works and
his research work Gruber dealt with a wide range of topics, from
trade legislation to water transportation to population policy. He
summarised the results of his systematic research in economic
politics in his four publications about industrial, agricultural,
trading and transportation policy. According to professor Vencovský,
"overall Gruber's view of economic politics was dominated by on the one hand, a description of the current practice and on the
other hand, a history of this practice from ancient times to
The theory of economic politics was not paid great attention;
it almost perished." Yet in the very inexhaustible works of Josef
Gruber a thoughtful reader would find much detailed
information, interesting insights and inspirational aspects.
Mgr. Vladimír Seidl
On this page there can be found the following from
the works of J. Gruber:
On World Economy. Prague, 1900.
Idea of Self-resourcing in the Historical
Development of Economics. Prague, 1904.
Economic Theory I. Prague, 1922.
Industrial policy. Prague, 1922.
Transportation policy. Prague, 1924.
Trading policy. Prague, 1924.
Dr. Albín Bráf. Praha, 1912
O komorách obchodních a živnostenských. Praha, 1904
O vývoji živnostenského zákonodárství v Rakousku... Praha, 1904
Nejnovější pokusy o reformu živnostenkého řádu v Rakousku. Praha, 1906
Úkoly národohospodářského ústavu... Praha, 1918
Průmysl a obchod v Československé republice. Praha, 1919
Má býti krupobitní pojištění postátněno? Praha, 1925
První čeští universitní učitelé národního hospodářství. Praha, 1912